Paget disease of bone (PD) is characterized by excessive bone resorption in focal areas followed by abundant new bone formation, with eventual replacement of the normal bone marrow by vascular and fibrous tissue. The etiology of PD is not well understood, but one PD-linked gene and several other susceptibility loci have been identified, and paramyxoviral gene products have been detected in pagetic osteoclasts. In this review, the pathophysiology of PD and evidence for both a genetic and a viral etiology for PD will be discussed.
G. David Roodman, Jolene J. Windle
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation. Our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has greatly advanced. Activated hepatic stellate cells, portal fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have been identified as major collagen-producing cells in the injured liver. These cells are activated by fibrogenic cytokines such as TGF-β1, angiotensin II, and leptin. Reversibility of advanced liver fibrosis in patients has been recently documented, which has stimulated researchers to develop antifibrotic drugs. Emerging antifibrotic therapies are aimed at inhibiting the accumulation of fibrogenic cells and/or preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although many therapeutic interventions are effective in experimental models of liver fibrosis, their efficacy and safety in humans is unknown. This review summarizes recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of liver fibrosis and discusses current antifibrotic strategies.
Ramón Bataller, David A. Brenner
Defective uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, or insulin resistance, is a central feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. As we brace ourselves for the diabetes epidemic, it is reassuring to know that real progress is being made in defining the molecular biology of how insulin stimulates glucose uptake and what goes awry in obesity and type 2 diabetes. An understanding of the molecular determinants of insulin-stimulated glucose transport has been one of the holy grails of hormone action research. A major breakthrough was the discovery that insulin stimulates the translocation of a specific glucose transport protein, GLUT4, from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. Elucidating how this process is regulated has remained a challenge because it represents a convergence of 2 disparate and complex fields of research — namely, vesicle transport and signal transduction. A study reported in this issue of the JCI using mice lacking Munc18c, one of the vesicle-trafficking proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, has provided new insights into the signaling/trafficking intersection that controls insulin-stimulated GLUT4 movement.
David E. James
For 3 decades, terms such as synthetic phenotype and contractile phenotype have been used to imply the existence of a specific mechanism for smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to injury. In this issue of the JCI, Hendrix et al. offer a far more precise approach to examining the mechanisms of SMC responses to injury, focused not on general changes in phenotype but on effects of injury on a single promoter element, the CArG [CC(A/T)6GG] box, in a single gene encoding smooth muscle (SM) α-actin. Since CArG box structures are present in some, but not all, SMC genes, these data suggest that we may be progressing toward establishing a systematic, molecular classification of both SMC subsets and the response of SMCs to different injuries.
William M. Mahoney Jr., Stephen M. Schwartz
Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a transmembrane protein that signals from the ER and contributes to the generation of an active spliced form of the transcriptional regulator X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1). XBP1 is required for the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells, and IRE1 also participates in this differentiation event. A study in this issue of the JCI reveals, quite unexpectedly, that IRE1 is also required early in B lymphocyte development for the induction of the machinery that mediates Ig gene rearrangement.
In pancreatic β cells, not only insulin exocytosis per se, but translocation of β granules toward the plasma membrane — an event upstream of exocytosis — are under the control of glucose. However, the molecular basis of this translocation has been poorly understood. Rab27a-mediated translocation of glucose-induced β granules is reported in this issue of the JCI. Rab27a or its effector molecule may constitute a novel pharmacological target because potentiation of the Rab27a pathway is expected to restore β cell glucose competency in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Toru Aizawa, Mitsuhisa Komatsu
The potential threat of the smallpox virus as a bioterror weapon has long been recognized, and the need for developing suitable countermeasures has become especially acute following the events of September 2001. Traditional antiviral agents interfere with viral proteins or functions. In a new study, Yang et al. focus instead on host cellular pathways used by the virus. A drug that interferes with the cellular ErbB-1 signal transduction pathway, activated by smallpox growth factor, sheds new light on how the virus replicates in the cell. Drugs that target the ErbB-signaling pathways represent a promising new class of antiviral agents.
Anthony S. Fauci, Mark D. Challberg
The growth hormone/IGF-1–signaling (GH/IGF-1–signaling) system is involved in numerous physiological processes during normal growth and development and also in the aging process. Understanding the regulation of this system is therefore of importance to the biologist. Studies conducted over the past decade have shown that the JAK/STAT pathways are involved in GH signaling to the nucleus. More recently, evidence has been presented that a member of the SOCS family, SOCS2, is a negative regulator of GH signaling. This story began several years ago with the dramatic demonstration of gigantism in the SOCS2-knockout mouse. A more specific definition of the role of SOCS2 in GH signaling is provided in this issue of the JCI by the demonstration that the overgrowth phenotype of the SOCS2–/– mouse is dependent upon the presence of endogenous GH and that administration of GH to mice lacking both endogenous GH and SOCS2 produced excessive growth.
Derek LeRoith, Peter Nissley
Mechanisms regulating thrombus stabilization remain largely unknown. Here, we report that loss of any 1 of the Gas6 receptors (Gas6-Rs), i.e., Tyro3, Axl, or Mer, or delivery of a soluble extracellular domain of Axl that traps Gas6 protects mice against life-threatening thrombosis. Loss of a Gas6-R does not prevent initial platelet aggregation but impairs subsequent stabilization of platelet aggregates, at least in part by reducing “outside-in” signaling and platelet granule secretion. Gas6, through its receptors, activates PI3K and Akt and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the β3 integrin, thereby amplifying outside-in signaling via αIIbβ3. Blocking the Gas6-R–αIIbβ3 integrin cross-talk might be a novel approach to the reduction of thrombosis.
Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Laurent Burnier, Nathalie Flores, Pierre Savi, Maria DeMol, Paul Schaeffer, Jean-Marc Herbert, Greg Lemke, Stephen P. Goff, Glenn K. Matsushima, H. Shelton Earp, Christian Vesin, Marc F. Hoylaerts, Stéphane Plaisance, Désiré Collen, Edward M. Conway, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller, Peter Carmeliet
Edema occurs in asthma and other inflammatory diseases when the rate of plasma leakage from blood vessels exceeds the drainage through lymphatic vessels and other routes. It is unclear to what extent lymphatic vessels grow to compensate for increased leakage during inflammation and what drives the lymphangiogenesis that does occur. We addressed these issues in mouse models of (a) chronic respiratory tract infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis and (b) adenoviral transduction of airway epithelium with VEGF family growth factors. Blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis were both robust in infected airways. Inhibition of VEGFR-3 signaling completely prevented the growth of lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. Lack of lymphatic growth exaggerated mucosal edema and reduced the hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes. Airway dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells expressed the VEGFR-3 ligands VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Adenoviral delivery of either VEGF-C or VEGF-D evoked lymphangiogenesis without angiogenesis, whereas adenoviral VEGF had the opposite effect. After antibiotic treatment of the infection, inflammation and remodeling of blood vessels quickly subsided, but lymphatic vessels persisted. Together, these findings suggest that when lymphangiogenesis is impaired, airway inflammation may lead to bronchial lymphedema and exaggerated airflow obstruction. Correction of defective lymphangiogenesis may benefit the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases.
Peter Baluk, Tuomas Tammela, Erin Ator, Natalya Lyubynska, Marc G. Achen, Daniel J. Hicklin, Michael Jeltsch, Tatiana V. Petrova, Bronislaw Pytowski, Steven A. Stacker, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, David G. Jackson, Kari Alitalo, Donald M. McDonald
Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling proteins, such as the ATRX gene, underlie a number of genetic disorders including several X-linked mental retardation syndromes; however, the role of these proteins in normal CNS development is unknown. Here, we used a conditional gene-targeting approach to inactivate Atrx, specifically in the forebrain of mice. Loss of ATRX protein caused widespread hypocellularity in the neocortex and hippocampus and a pronounced reduction in forebrain size. Neuronal “birthdating” confirmed that fewer neurons reached the superficial cortical layers, despite normal progenitor cell proliferation. The loss of cortical mass resulted from a 12-fold increase in neuronal apoptosis during early stages of corticogenesis in the mutant animals. Moreover, cortical progenitors isolated from Atrx-null mice undergo enhanced apoptosis upon differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that ATRX is a critical mediator of cell survival during early neuronal differentiation. Thus, increased neuronal loss may contribute to the severe mental retardation observed in human patients.
Nathalie G. Bérubé, Marie Mangelsdorf, Magdalena Jagla, Jackie Vanderluit, David Garrick, Richard J. Gibbons, Douglas R. Higgs, Ruth S. Slack, David J. Picketts
B lymphocyte differentiation is coordinated with the induction of high-level Ig secretion and expansion of the secretory pathway. Upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER, cells activate an intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Two major proximal sensors of the UPR are inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), an ER transmembrane protein kinase/endoribonuclease, and ER-resident eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (PERK). To elucidate whether the UPR plays an important role in lymphopoiesis, we carried out reconstitution of recombinase-activating gene 2–deficient (rag2–/–) mice with hematopoietic cells defective in either IRE1α- or PERK-mediated signaling. IRE1α-deficient (ire1α–/–) HSCs can proliferate and give rise to pro–B cells that home to bone marrow. However, IRE1α, but not its catalytic activities, is required for Ig gene rearrangement and production of B cell receptors (BCRs). Analysis of rag2–/– mice transplanted with IRE1α trans-dominant-negative bone marrow cells demonstrated an additional requirement for IRE1α in B lymphopoiesis: both the IRE1α kinase and RNase catalytic activities are required to splice the mRNA encoding X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1) for terminal differentiation of mature B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Furthermore, UPR-mediated translational control through eIF2α phosphorylation is not required for B lymphocyte maturation and/or plasma cell differentiation. These results suggest specific requirements of the IRE1α-mediated UPR subpathway in the early and late stages of B lymphopoiesis.
Kezhong Zhang, Hetty N. Wong, Benbo Song, Corey N. Miller, Donalyn Scheuner, Randal J. Kaufman
TNF-induced receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells is a fundamental component of inflammatory osteolysis. We found that this process was abolished by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or in stromal cells derived from type I IL-1 receptor–deficient (IL-1RI–deficient) mice. Reflecting sequential signaling of the cytokines TNF and IL-1, TNF induces stromal cell expression of IL-1 and IL-1RI. These data suggest that TNF regulates RANKL expression via IL-1, and, therefore, IL-1 plays a role in TNF-induced periarticular osteolysis. Consistent with this posture, TNF-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in cultures consisting of WT marrow macrophages and stromal cells exposed to IL-1Ra or in cocultures established with IL-1RI–deficient stromal cells was reduced approximately 50%. The same magnitude of osteoclast inhibition occurred in IL-1RI–deficient mice following TNF administration in vivo. Like TNF, IL-1 directly targeted osteoclast precursors and promoted the osteoclast phenotype in a TNF-independent manner in the presence of permissive levels of RANKL. IL-1 is able to induce RANKL expression by stromal cells and directly stimulate osteoclast precursor differentiation under the aegis of p38 MAPK. Thus, IL-1 mediates the osteoclastogenic effect of TNF by enhancing stromal cell expression of RANKL and directly stimulating differentiation of osteoclast precursors.
Shi Wei, Hideki Kitaura, Ping Zhou, F. Patrick Ross, Steven L. Teitelbaum
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes is mediated by translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the cell periphery and the subsequent fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in the externalization of GLUT4. Fusion of the GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane is mediated by a soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex consisting of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), 23-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP23), and syntaxin4. We have now generated mouse embryos deficient in the syntaxin4 binding protein Munc18c and show that the insulin-induced appearance of GLUT4 at the cell surface is enhanced in adipocytes derived from these Munc18c−/− mice compared with that in Munc18c+/+ cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, inhibited insulin-stimulated GLUT4 externalization, without affecting GLUT4 translocation to the cell periphery, in Munc18c+/+ adipocytes, but it did not affect GLUT4 externalization in Munc18c−/− cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, which induced GLUT4 translocation to the cell periphery without externalization in Munc18c+/+ cells, elicited GLUT4 externalization in Munc18c−/− cells. These findings demonstrate that Munc18c inhibits insulin-stimulated externalization of GLUT4 in a wortmannin-sensitive manner, and they suggest that disruption of the interaction between syntaxin4 and Munc18c in adipocytes might result in enhancement of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 externalization.
Hajime Kanda, Yoshikazu Tamori, Hiroaki Shinoda, Mari Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi Sakaue, Jun Udagawa, Hiroki Otani, Fumi Tashiro, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Masato Kasuga
We show in these studies that Qa-1–dependent CD8+ T cells are involved in the establishment and maintenance of peripheral self tolerance as well as facilitating affinity maturation of CD4+ T cells responding to foreign antigen. We provide experimental evidence that the strategy used by the Qa-1–dependent CD8+ T cells to accomplish both these tasks in vivo is to selectively downregulate T cell clones that respond to both self and foreign antigens with intermediate, not high or low, affinity/avidity. Thus, the immune system evolved to regulate peripheral immunity using a unified mechanism that efficiently and effectively permits the system to safeguard peripheral self tolerance yet promote the capacity to deal with foreign invaders.
Hong Jiang, Yilun Wu, Bitao Liang, Zongyu Zheng, Guomei Tang, Jean Kanellopoulos, Mark Soloski, Robert Winchester, Itamar Goldstein, Leonard Chess
The cytokine IL-6 acts via a specific receptor complex that consists of the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (mIL-6R) or the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130). In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6R components in asthma. We observed increased levels of sIL-6R in the airways of patients with allergic asthma as compared to those in controls. In addition, local blockade of the sIL-6R in a murine model of late-phase asthma after OVA sensitization by gp130–fraction constant led to suppression of Th2 cells in the lung. By contrast, blockade of mIL-6R induced local expansion of Foxp3-positive CD4+CD25+ Tregs with increased immunosuppressive capacities. CD4+CD25+ but not CD4+CD25– lung T cells selectively expressed the IL-6R α chain and showed IL-6–dependent STAT-3 phosphorylation. Finally, in an in vivo transfer model of asthma in immunodeficient Rag1 mice, CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from anti–IL-6R antibody–treated mice exhibited marked immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory functions. IL-6 signaling therefore controls the balance between effector cells and Tregs in the lung by means of different receptor components. Furthermore, inhibition of IL-6 signaling emerges as a novel molecular approach for the treatment of allergic asthma.
Aysefa Doganci, Tatjana Eigenbrod, Norbert Krug, George T. De Sanctis, Michael Hausding, Veit J. Erpenbeck, El-Bdaoui Haddad, Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp, Karl-J. Kallen, Udo Herz, Steffen Schmitt, Cornelia Luft, Olaf Hecht, Jens M. Hohlfeld, Hiroaki Ito, Norihiro Nishimoto, Kazuyuki Yoshizaki, Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Stefan Rose-John, Harald Renz, Markus F. Neurath, Peter R. Galle, Susetta Finotto
We have identified a subpopulation of stem cells within adult human BM, isolated at the single-cell level, that self-renew without loss of multipotency for more than 140 population doublings and exhibit the capacity for differentiation into cells of all 3 germ layers. Based on surface marker expression, these clonally expanded human BM-derived multipotent stem cells (hBMSCs) do not appear to belong to any previously described BM-derived stem cell population. Intramyocardial transplantation of hBMSCs after myocardial infarction resulted in robust engraftment of transplanted cells, which exhibited colocalization with markers of cardiomyocyte (CMC), EC, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) identity, consistent with differentiation of hBMSCs into multiple lineages in vivo. Furthermore, upregulation of paracrine factors including angiogenic cytokines and antiapoptotic factors, and proliferation of host ECs and CMCs, were observed in the hBMSC-transplanted hearts. Coculture of hBMSCs with CMCs, ECs, or SMCs revealed that phenotypic changes of hBMSCs result from both differentiation and fusion. Collectively, the favorable effect of hBMSC transplantation after myocardial infarction appears to be due to augmentation of proliferation and preservation of host myocardial tissues as well as differentiation of hBMSCs for tissue regeneration and repair. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a specific population of multipotent human BM-derived stem cells can induce both therapeutic neovascularization and endogenous and exogenous cardiomyogenesis.
Young-sup Yoon, Andrea Wecker, Lindsay Heyd, Jong-Seon Park, Tengiz Tkebuchava, Kengo Kusano, Allison Hanley, Heather Scadova, Gangjian Qin, Dong-Hyun Cha, Kirby L. Johnson, Ryuichi Aikawa, Takayuki Asahara, Douglas W. Losordo
We used a spheroid model of colon carcinoma to analyze integrin dynamics as a function of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that provides a paradigm for understanding how carcinoma cells acquire a more aggressive phenotype. This EMT involves transcriptional activation of the β6 integrin subunit and a consequent induction of αvβ6 expression. This integrin enhances the tumorigenic properties of colon carcinoma, including activation of autocrine TGF-β and migration on interstitial fibronectin. Importantly, this study validates the clinical relevance of the EMT. Kaplan-Meier analysis of β6 expression in 488 colorectal carcinomas revealed a striking reduction in median survival time of patients with high β6 expression. Elevated receptor expression did not simply reflect increasing tumor stage, since log-rank analysis showed a more significant impact on the survival of patients with early-stage, as opposed to late-stage, disease. Cox regression analysis confirmed that this integrin is an independent variable for these tumors. These findings define the αvβ6 integrin as an important risk factor for early-stage disease and a novel therapeutic candidate for colorectal cancer.
Richard C. Bates, David I. Bellovin, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Bingyan Wu, Hisaaki Kawakatsu, Dean Sheppard, Peter Oettgen, Arthur M. Mercurio
Although the primary determinant of cell tropism is the interaction of viral envelope or capsid proteins with cellular receptors, other viral elements can strongly modulate viral replication. While the HIV-1 promoter is polymorphic for a variety of transcription factor binding sites, the impact of these polymorphisms on viral replication in vivo is not known. To address this issue, we engineered isogenic SIVmac239 chimeras harboring the core promoter/enhancer from HIV-1 clades B, C, and E. Here it is shown that the clade C and E core promoters/enhancers bear a noncanonical activator protein–1 (AP-1) binding site, absent from the corresponding clade B region. Relative ex vivo replication of chimeras was strongly dependent on the tissue culture system used. Notably, in thymic histocultures, replication of the clade C chimera was favored by IL-7 enrichment, which suggests that the clade C polymorphism in the AP-1 and NF-κB binding sites is involved. Simultaneous infection of rhesus macaques with the 3 chimeras revealed a strong predominance of the clade C chimera during primary infection. Thereafter, the B chimera dominated in all tissues. These data show that the clade C promoter is particularly adapted to sustain viral replication in primary viremia and that clade-specific promoter polymorphisms constitute a major determinant for viral replication.
Mireille Centlivre, Peter Sommer, Marie Michel, Raphaël Ho Tsong Fang, Sandrine Gofflo, Jenny Valladeau, Nathalie Schmitt, Françoise Thierry, Bruno Hurtrel, Simon Wain-Hobson, Monica Sala
Macrophages are critical effectors of bacterial clearance and must retain viability, despite exposure to toxic bacterial products, until key antimicrobial functions are performed. Subsequently, host-mediated macrophage apoptosis aids resolution of infection. The ability of macrophages to make this transition from resistance to susceptibility to apoptosis is important for effective host innate immune responses. We investigated the role of Mcl-1, an essential regulator of macrophage lifespan, in this switch from viability to apoptosis, using the model of pneumococcal-associated macrophage apoptosis. Upon exposure to pneumococci, macrophages initially upregulate Mcl-1 protein and maintain viability for up to 14 hours. Subsequently, macrophages reduce expression of full-length Mcl-1 and upregulate a 34-kDa isoform of Mcl-1 corresponding to a novel BH3-only splice variant, Mcl-1Exon-1. Change in expression of Mcl-1 protein is associated with mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, which is characterized by loss of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential and translocation of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. Following pneumococcal infection, macrophages expressing full-length human Mcl-1 as a transgene exhibit a delay in apoptosis and in bacterial killing. Mcl-1 transgenic mice clear pneumococci from the lung less efficiently than nontransgenic mice. Dynamic changes in Mcl-1 expression determine macrophage viability as well as antibacterial host defense.
Helen M. Marriott, Colin D. Bingle, Robert C. Read, Karen E. Braley, Guido Kroemer, Paul G. Hellewell, Ruth W. Craig, Moira K.B. Whyte, David H. Dockrell
B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by accumulation of B lymphocytes due to uncontrolled growth and resistance to apoptosis. Analysis of B cells freshly isolated from 40 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia demonstrated that the Src kinase Lyn, the switch molecule that couples the B cell receptor to downstream signaling, displays anomalous properties. Lyn is remarkably overexpressed at the protein level in leukemic cells as compared with normal B lymphocytes, with a substantial aliquot of the kinase anomalously present in the cytosol. Whereas in normal B lymphocytes Lyn activation is dependent on B cell–receptor stimulation, in resting malignant cells, the constitutive activity of the kinase accounts for high basal protein tyrosine phosphorylation and low responsiveness to IgM ligation. Addition of the Lyn inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 to leukemic cell cultures restores cell apoptosis, and treatment of malignant cells with drugs that induce cell apoptosis decreases both activity and amount of the tyrosine kinase. These findings suggest a direct correlation between high basal Lyn activity and defects in the induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells. They also support a critical role for Lyn in B-CLL pathogenesis and identify this tyrosine kinase as a potential therapeutic target.
Antonella Contri, Anna Maria Brunati, Livio Trentin, Anna Cabrelle, Marta Miorin, Luca Cesaro, Lorenzo A. Pinna, Renato Zambello, Gianpietro Semenzato, Arianna Donella-Deana
The EGF-like domain of smallpox growth factor (SPGF) targets human ErbB-1, inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of certain host cellular substrates via activation of the receptor’s kinase domain and thereby facilitating viral replication. Given these findings, low molecular weight organic inhibitors of ErbB-1 kinases might function as antiviral agents against smallpox. Here we show that CI-1033 and related 4-anilinoquinazolines inhibit SPGF-induced human cellular DNA synthesis, protein tyrosine kinase activation, and c-Cbl association with ErbB-1 and resultant internalization. Infection of monkey kidney BSC-40 and VERO-E6 cells in vitro by variola strain Solaimen is blocked by CI-1033, primarily at the level of secondary viral spreading. In an in vivo lethal vaccinia virus pneumonia model, CI-1033 alone promotes survival of animals, augments systemic T cell immunity and, in conjunction with a single dose of anti-L1R intracellular mature virus particle-specific mAb, fosters virtually complete viral clearance of the lungs of infected mice by the eighth day after infection. Collectively, these findings show that chemical inhibitors of host-signaling pathways exploited by viral pathogens may represent potent antiviral therapies.
Hailin Yang, Sung-Kwon Kim, Mikyung Kim, Pedro A. Reche, Tiara J. Morehead, Inger K. Damon, Raymond M. Welsh, Ellis L. Reinherz
The monomeric small GTPase Rab27a is specifically localized on both secretory granules and lysosome-related organelles. Although natural mutations of the Rab27a gene in human Griscelli syndrome and in ashen mice cause partial albinism and immunodeficiency reflecting the dysfunction of lysosome-related organelles, phenotypes resulting from the defective exocytosis of secretory granules have not been reported. To explore the roles of Rab27a in secretory granules, we analyzed insulin secretion profiles in ashen mice. Ashen mice showed glucose intolerance after a glucose load without signs of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues or insulin deficiency in the pancreas. Insulin secretion from isolated islets was decreased specifically in response to high glucose concentrations but not other nonphysiological secretagogues such as high K+ concentrations, forskolin, or phorbol ester. Neither the intracellular Ca2+ concentration nor the dynamics of fusion pore opening after glucose stimulation were altered. There were, however, marked reductions in the exocytosis from insulin granules predocked on the plasma membrane and in the replenishment of docked granules during glucose stimulation. These results provide the first genetic evidence to our knowledge for the role of Rab27a in the exocytosis of secretory granules and suggest that the Rab27a/effector system mediates glucose-specific signals for the exocytosis of insulin granules in pancreatic β cells.
Kazuo Kasai, Mica Ohara-Imaizumi, Noriko Takahashi, Shin Mizutani, Shengli Zhao, Toshiteru Kikuta, Haruo Kasai, Shinya Nagamatsu, Hiroshi Gomi, Tetsuro Izumi
Mice deficient in SOCS2 display an excessive growth phenotype characterized by a 30–50% increase in mature body size. Here we show that the SOCS2–/– phenotype is dependent upon the presence of endogenous growth hormone (GH) and that treatment with exogenous GH induced excessive growth in mice lacking both endogenous GH and SOCS2. This was reflected in terms of overall body weight, body and bone lengths, and the weight of internal organs and tissues. A heightened response to GH was also measured by examining GH-responsive genes expressed in the liver after exogenous GH administration. To further understand the link between SOCS2 and the GH-signaling cascade, we investigated the nature of these interactions using structure/function and biochemical interaction studies. Analysis of the 3 structural motifs of the SOCS2 molecule revealed that each plays a crucial role in SOCS2 function, with the conserved SOCS-box motif being essential for all inhibitory function. SOCS2 was found to bind 2 phosphorylated tyrosines on the GH receptor, and mutational analysis of these amino acids showed that both were essential for SOCS2 function. Together, the data provide clear evidence that SOCS2 is a negative regulator of GH signaling.
Christopher J. Greenhalgh, Elizabeth Rico-Bautista, Mattias Lorentzon, Anne L. Thaus, Phillip O. Morgan, Tracy A. Willson, Panagiota Zervoudakis, Donald Metcalf, Ian Street, Nicos A. Nicola, Andrew D. Nash, Louis J. Fabri, Gunnar Norstedt, Claes Ohlsson, Amilcar Flores-Morales, Warren S. Alexander, Douglas J. Hilton
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathogenic autoantibodies against nucleoproteins and DNA. Here we show that DNA-containing immune complexes (ICs) within lupus serum (SLE-ICs), but not protein-containing ICs from other autoimmune rheumatic diseases, stimulates plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) to produce cytokines and chemokines via a cooperative interaction between Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and FcγRIIa (CD32). SLE-ICs transiently colocalized to a subcellular compartment containing CD32 and TLR9, and CD32+, but not CD32–, PDCs internalized and responded to SLE-ICs. Our findings demonstrate a novel functional interaction between Fc receptors and TLRs, defining a pathway in which CD32 delivers SLE-ICs to intracellular lysosomes containing TLR9, inducing a signaling cascade leading to PDC activation. These data demonstrate that endogenous DNA-containing autoantibody complexes found in the serum of patients with SLE activate the innate immune system and suggest a novel mechanism whereby these ICs contribute to the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease.
Terry K. Means, Eicke Latz, Fumitaka Hayashi, Mandakolathur R. Murali, Douglas T. Golenbock, Andrew D. Luster
CC(A/T)6GG–dependent (CArG-dependent) and serum response factor–dependent (SRF-dependent) mechanisms are required for gene expression in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, an unusual feature of many SMC-selective promoter CArG elements is that they contain a conserved single G or C substitution in their central A/T-rich region, which reduces binding affinity for ubiquitously expressed SRF. We hypothesized that this CArG degeneracy contributes to cell-specific expression of smooth muscle α-actin in vivo, since substitution of c-fos consensus CArGs for the degenerate CArGs resulted in relaxed specificity in cultured cells. Surprisingly, our present results show that these substitutions have no effect on smooth muscle–specific transgene expression during normal development and maturation in transgenic mice. However, these substitutions significantly attenuated injury-induced downregulation of the mutant transgene under conditions where SRF expression was increased but expression of myocardin, a smooth muscle–selective SRF coactivator, was decreased. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, together with cell culture studies, suggested that myocardin selectively enhanced SRF binding to degenerate versus consensus CArG elements. Our results indicate that reductions in myocardin expression and the degeneracy of CArG elements within smooth muscle promoters play a key role in phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells in vivo, as well as in mediating responses of CArG-dependent smooth muscle genes and growth regulatory genes under conditions in which these 2 classes of genes are differentially expressed.
Jennifer A. Hendrix, Brian R. Wamhoff, Oliver G. McDonald, Sanjay Sinha, Tadashi Yoshida, Gary K. Owens
Neuritic plaques are a defining feature of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. These structures are composed of extracellular accumulations of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and other plaque-associated proteins, surrounded by large, swollen axons and dendrites (dystrophic neurites) and activated glia. Dystrophic neurites are thought to disrupt neuronal function, but whether this damage is static, dynamic, or reversible is unknown. To address this, we monitored neuritic plaques in the brains of living PDAPP;Thy-1:YFP transgenic mice, a model that develops AD-like pathology and also stably expresses yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a subset of neurons in the brain. Using multiphoton microscopy, we observed and monitored amyloid through cranial windows in PDAPP;Thy-1:YFP double-transgenic mice using the in vivo amyloid-imaging fluorophore methoxy-X04, and individual YFP-labeled dystrophic neurites by their inherent fluorescence. In vivo studies using this system suggest that amyloid-associated dystrophic neurites are relatively stable structures in PDAPP;Thy-1:YFP transgenic mice over several days. However, a significant reduction in the number and size of dystrophic neurites was seen 3 days after Aβ deposits were cleared by anti-Aβ antibody treatment. This analysis suggests that ongoing axonal and dendritic damage is secondary to Aβ and is, in part, rapidly reversible.
Robert P. Brendza, Brian J. Bacskai, John R. Cirrito, Kelly A. Simmons, Jesse M. Skoch, William E. Klunk, Chester A. Mathis, Kelly R. Bales, Steven M. Paul, Bradley T. Hyman, David M. Holtzman
Regulation of the immune response requires the cooperation of multiple signals in the activation of effector cells. For example, T cells require signals emanating from both the TCR for antigen (upon recognition of MHC/antigenic peptide) and receptors for costimulatory molecules (e.g., CD80 and CD60) for full activation. Here we show that IgE-mediated reactions in the conjunctiva also require multiple signals. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva were inhibited in mice deficient in macrophage inflammatory protein–1α (MIP-1α) despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and no decrease in the levels of allergen-specific IgE. Treatment of sensitized animals with neutralizing antibodies with specificity for MIP-1α also inhibited hypersensitivity in the conjunctiva. In both cases (MIP-1α deficiency and antibody treatment), the degranulation of mast cells in situ was affected. In vitro sensitization assays showed that MIP-1α is indeed required for optimal mast cell degranulation, along with cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. The data indicate that MIP-1α constitutes an important second signal for mast cell degranulation in the conjunctiva in vivo and consequently for acute-phase disease. Antagonizing the interaction of MIP-1α with its receptor CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) or signal transduction from CCR1 may therefore prove to be effective as an antiinflammatory therapy on the ocular surface.
Dai Miyazaki, Takao Nakamura, Masako Toda, Kam-Wa Cheung-Chau, Ricardo M. Richardson, Santa Jeremy Ono
HIV-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are preferred targets for infection. Although complete interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) can form part of therapeutic manipulations, there is grave concern that the resumption of viral replication might destroy, perhaps irreversibly, these T helper populations. High viremia blocks the proliferation capacity of HIV-specific helper cells. However, cytokine production assays imply that some antigen-specific effector function is retained. Despite this careful work, it remains unclear whether the return of HIV-1 replication physically destroys HIV-1–specific T helper cells in the peripheral blood. Difficulties in producing stable peptide-MHC class II complexes and the very low frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells have delayed the application of this powerful technique. Here we employ HLA class II tetramers and validate a sensitive, quantitative cell-enrichment technique to detect HIV-1 T helper cells. We studied patients with early-stage HIV infection who were given a short, fixed course of ART as part of a clinical study. We did not find significant deletion of these cells from the peripheral circulation when ART was stopped and unfettered HIV replication returned. The turnover of these virus-specific cells increased and they adopted an effector phenotype when viremia returned.
Thomas J. Scriba, Hua-Tang Zhang, Helen L. Brown, Annette Oxenius, Norbert Tamm, Sarah Fidler, Julie Fox, Jonathan N. Weber, Paul Klenerman, Cheryl L. Day, Michaela Lucas, Rodney E. Phillips
Advanced congestive heart failure is associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system and skeletal muscle wasting. We previously showed that angiotensin II infusion in rats produces cachexia secondarily to increased muscle proteolysis and also decreases levels of circulating and skeletal muscle IGF-1. Here we show that angiotensin II markedly downregulates phospho-Akt and activates caspase-3 in skeletal muscle, leading to actin cleavage, an important component of muscle proteolysis, and to increased apoptosis. These changes are blocked by muscle-specific expression of IGF-1, likely via the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that mRNA levels of the ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger–1 are upregulated in angiotensin II–infused WT, but not in IGF-1–transgenic, mice. These findings strongly suggest that angiotensin II downregulation of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle is causally related to angiotensin II–induced wasting. Because the renin-angiotensin system is activated in many catabolic conditions, our findings have broad implications for understanding mechanisms of skeletal muscle wasting and provide a rationale for new therapeutic approaches.
Yao-Hua Song, Yangxin Li, Jie Du, William E. Mitch, Nadia Rosenthal, Patrick Delafontaine
MyD88 is a common Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule found to be essential for induction of adaptive Th1 immunity. Conversely, innate control of adaptive Th2 immunity has been shown to occur in a MyD88-independent manner. In this study, we show that MyD88 is an essential innate component in the induction of TLR4-dependent Th2 responses to intranasal antigen; thus we demonstrate what we believe to be a novel role for MyD88 in pulmonary Th2 immunity. Induction of the MyD88-independent type I IFN response to LPS is defective in the pulmonary environment. Moreover, in the absence of MyD88, LPS-induced upregulation of costimulatory molecule expression on pulmonary DCs is defective, in contrast to what has been observed with bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs). Reconstitution of Th2 responses occurs upon adoptive pulmonary transfer of activated BMDCs to MyD88-deficient recipients. Furthermore, the dependence of Th2 responses on MyD88 is governed by the initial route of antigen exposure; this demonstrates what we believe are novel site-specific innate mechanisms for control of adaptive Th2 immunity.
Damani A. Piggott, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth, Lan Xu, Stephanie L. Constant, James W. Huleatt, Christina A. Herrick, Kim Bottomly
Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) is expressed exclusively in the kidney and constitutes the most abundant protein in mammalian urine. A critical role for THP in antibacterial host defense and inflammatory disorders of the urogenital tract has been suggested. We demonstrate that THP activates myeloid DCs via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) to acquire a fully mature DC phenotype. THP triggers typical TLR signaling, culminating in activation of NF-κB. Bone marrow–derived macrophages from TLR4- and MyD88-deficient mice were nonresponsive to THP in contrast to those from TLR2- and TLR9-deficient mice. In vivo THP-driven TNF-α production was evident in WT but not in Tlr4–/– mice. Importantly, generation of THP-specific Abs consistently detectable in urinary tract inflammation was completely blunted in Tlr4–/– mice. These data show that THP is a regulatory factor of innate and adaptive immunity and therefore could have significant impact on host immunity in the urinary tract.
Marcus D. Säemann, Thomas Weichhart, Maximilian Zeyda, Günther Staffler, Michael Schunn, Karl M. Stuhlmeier, Yuri Sobanov, Thomas M. Stulnig, Shizuo Akira, Alexander von Gabain, Uwe von Ahsen, Walter H. Hörl, Gerhard J. Zlabinger
Juan C. Molero, Thomas E. Jensen, Phil C. Withers, Michelle Couzens, Herbert Herzog, Christine B.F. Thien, Wallace Y. Langdon, Ken Walder, Maria A. Murphy, David D.L. Bowtell, Edna Hardeman, Majid Ghoddusi, David E. James, Gregory J. Cooney
Chenguang Fan, Qiang Li, Yulong Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Meihui Luo, Duane Abbott, Weihong Zhou, John F. Engelhardt
Meyling Cheok, Wenjian Yang, Gianluigi Zaza, Qing Cheng, John C. Panetta, Ching-Hon Pui, James R. Downing, Mary V. Relling, William E. Evans