The enteric nervous system controls critical aspects of intestinal motility, and disruption of this network may contribute to serious intestinal diseases, such as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. On page 5152, Fu et al. explore the role of the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) in enteric nervous system development. Their study demonstrates that loss of RB1 causes abnormal bowel contractility and endoreplication specifically in NO-producing enteric neurons. This image shows enteric neurons (HuC/D; red), including enlarged NO-producing neurons as well as neurites (TuJ1; green) and DNA (DRAQ5; blue) from the distal small bowel of an
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) receptors mediate a plethora of physiological phenomena in the brain and the periphery. Additionally, serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in nearly every neuropsychiatric disorder. The effects of serotonin are mediated by fourteen GPCRs. Both the therapeutic actions and side effects of commonly prescribed drugs are frequently due to nonspecific actions on various 5-HT receptor subtypes. For more than 20 years, the search for clinically efficacious drugs that selectively target 5-HT receptor subtypes has been only occasionally successful. This review provides an overview of 5-HT receptor pharmacology and discusses two recent 5-HT receptor subtype–selective drugs, lorcaserin and pimavanserin, which target the 5HT2C and 5HT2A receptors and provide new treatments for obesity and Parkinson’s disease psychosis, respectively.
Herbert Y. Meltzer, Bryan L. Roth
Over the last century, our modern concepts and understanding of metabolism and immunology have evolved largely in parallel. Notably, during the last decade, there has been a sharpened focus on the convergence of metabolism and immune function. In part motivated by studies originally published in the
Anthony W. Ferrante Jr.
Circadian rhythms govern nearly every physiological process in our brains and bodies. At the most basic level, the molecular clockwork in each cell interacts with metabolic cycles to influence the redox state, allowing for increased cellular activity at specific times of day. In this issue of the
Colleen A. McClung
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome has a poor prognosis and often leads to end-stage renal disease development. In this issue of the
Laura Malaga-Dieguez, Katalin Susztak
The epithelial-derived nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare tumor in most of the world; however, it is common in southern China, northern Africa, and Alaska. NPC is often left undiagnosed and untreated until a late stage of disease. Furthermore, while radiation therapy is effective against this tumor, local recurrence due to radioresistance is an important clinical problem. In this issue, Liu et al. report on their identification of the IL-6 family cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a serum predictor of local NPC recurrence following radiation therapy. The authors developed this initial finding to discover a role for the LIF/LIFR/mTORC1 signaling axis in NPC tumor cell growth as well as radioresistance.
The mTOR pathway orchestrates diverse physiological processes, including T cell functions and fate decisions; however, the regulation of mTOR-dependent T cell differentiation remains elusive. In this issue, Park et al. examine the role of TSC1, an mTOR signaling regulator, in T cell differentiation and the balance between T cell–mediated immunity and tolerance. They found that enhanced mTOR activity in
Kai Yang, Hongbo Chi
The knowledge gained from “experiments of nature” has always been paramount in identifying key players in pathophysiologic pathways. This is well characterized by naturally occurring bleeding and thrombotic disorders. In most cases, it is the absence of a particular protein that leads to recognition of its importance for normal physiology. On the other hand, gain-of-function mutations highlight not only the presence of the protein, but also how it regulates a particular physiologic response. In this issue of the
There is emerging evidence that autoantibodies directed against cytokines modulate the severity of autoimmune disease. Identification of cytokine-targeted autoantibodies in patients can be informative for diagnosis and predicting clinical outcome. In this issue of the
Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Maureen A. Su
Protection against deadly pathogens requires the production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells, which are generated in germinal centers (GCs). Alteration of the GC developmental program is common in many B cell malignancies. Identification of regulators of the GC response is crucial to develop targeted therapies for GC B cell dysfunctions, including lymphomas. The histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is highly expressed in GC B cells and is often constitutively activated in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). The function of EZH2 in GC B cells remains largely unknown. Herein, we show that
Marieta Caganova, Chiara Carrisi, Gabriele Varano, Federica Mainoldi, Federica Zanardi, Pierre-Luc Germain, Laura George, Federica Alberghini, Luca Ferrarini, Asoke K. Talukder, Maurilio Ponzoni, Giuseppe Testa, Takuya Nojima, Claudio Doglioni, Daisuke Kitamura, Kai-M. Toellner, I-hsin Su, Stefano Casola
Chronic pain is a major clinical problem, yet the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain remain poorly understood. In mice, reduced expression of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2) in nociceptors promotes cAMP signaling to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC1 and prolongs the PGE2-induced increase in pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia). Here we hypothesized that reduction of GRK2 or increased EPAC1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons would promote the transition to chronic pain. We used 2 mouse models of hyperalgesic priming in which the transition from acute to chronic PGE2-induced hyperalgesia occurs. Hyperalgesic priming with carrageenan induced a sustained decrease in nociceptor GRK2, whereas priming with the PKCε agonist ΨεRACK increased DRG EPAC1. When either GRK2 was increased in vivo by viral-based gene transfer or EPAC1 was decreased in vivo, as was the case for mice heterozygous for
Huijing Wang, Cobi J. Heijnen, Cindy T.J. van Velthoven, Hanneke L.D.M. Willemen, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Xinna Zhang, Anil K. Sood, Anne Vroon, Niels Eijkelkamp, Annemieke Kavelaars
Michail S. Lionakis, Muthulekha Swamydas, Brett G. Fischer, Theo S. Plantinga, Melissa D. Johnson, Martin Jaeger, Nathaniel M. Green, Andrius Masedunskas, Roberto Weigert, Constantinos Mikelis, Wuzhou Wan, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Jean K. Lim, Aymeric Rivollier, John C. Yang, Greg M. Laird, Robert T. Wheeler, Barbara D. Alexander, John R. Perfect, Ji-Liang Gao, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Mihai G. Netea, Philip M. Murphy
Children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) display a level of vascular dysfunction similar to that seen in children of mothers with preeclamspia. The long-term consequences of ART-associated vascular disorders are unknown and difficult to investigate in healthy children. Here, we found that vasculature from mice generated by ART display endothelial dysfunction and increased stiffness, which translated into arterial hypertension in vivo. Progeny of male ART mice also exhibited vascular dysfunction, suggesting underlying epigenetic modifications. ART mice had altered methylation at the promoter of the gene encoding eNOS in the aorta, which correlated with decreased vascular eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Administration of a deacetylase inhibitor to ART mice normalized vascular gene methylation and function and resulted in progeny without vascular dysfunction. The induction of ART-associated vascular and epigenetic alterations appeared to be related to the embryo environment; these alterations were possibly facilitated by the hormonally stimulated ovulation accompanying ART. Finally, ART mice challenged with a high-fat diet had roughly a 25% shorter life span compared with control animals. This study highlights the potential of ART to induce vascular dysfunction and shorten life span and suggests that epigenetic alterations contribute to these problems.
Emrush Rexhaj, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Stefano F. Rimoldi, Daniel G. Fuster, Manuel Anderegg, Emmanuel Somm, Elisa Bouillet, Yves Allemann, Claudio Sartori, Urs Scherrer
Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor–expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (
Eric D. Berglund, Chen Liu, Jong-Woo Sohn, Tiemin Liu, Mi Hwa Kim, Charlotte E. Lee, Claudia R. Vianna, Kevin W. Williams, Yong Xu, Joel K. Elmquist
von Willebrand disease type 2B (vWD-type 2B) is characterized by gain-of-function mutations in von Willebrand factor (vWF) that enhance its binding to the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex on platelets. Patients with vWD-type 2B have a bleeding tendency that is linked to loss of vWF multimers and/or thrombocytopenia. In this study, we uncovered evidence that platelet dysfunction is a third possible mechanism for bleeding tendency. We found that platelet aggregation, secretion, and spreading were diminished due to inhibition of integrin αIIbβ3 in platelets from mice expressing a vWD-type 2B–associated vWF (vWF/p.V1316M), platelets from a patient with the same mutation, and control platelets pretreated with recombinant vWF/p.V1316M. Impaired platelet function coincided with reduced thrombus growth. Further, αIIbβ3 activation and activation of the small GTPase Rap1 were impaired by vWF/p.V1316M following exposure to platelet agonists (thrombin, ADP, or convulxin). Conversely, thrombin- or ADP-induced Ca2+ store release, which is required for αIIbβ3 activation, was normal, indicating that vWF/p.V1316M acts downstream of Ca2+ release and upstream of Rap1. We found normal Syk phosphorylation and PLCγ2 activation following collagen receptor signaling, further implying that vWF/p.V1316M acts directly on or downstream of Ca2+ release. These data indicate that the vWD-type 2B mutation p.V1316M is associated with severe thrombocytopathy, which likely contributes to the bleeding tendency in vWD-type 2B.
Caterina Casari, Eliane Berrou, Marilyne Lebret, Frédéric Adam, Alexandre Kauskot, Régis Bobe, Céline Desconclois, Edith Fressinaud, Olivier D. Christophe, Peter J. Lenting, Jean-Philippe Rosa, Cécile V. Denis, Marijke Bryckaert
Aberrant blood vessel formation contributes to a wide variety of pathologies, and factors that regulate angiogenesis are attractive therapeutic targets. Endothelial and smooth muscle cell–derived neuropilin-like protein (ESDN) is a neuropilin-related transmembrane protein expressed in ECs; however, its potential effect on VEGF responses remains undefined. Here, we generated global and EC-specific
Lei Nie, Xiaojia Guo, Leila Esmailzadeh, Jiasheng Zhang, Abolfazl Asadi, Mark Collinge, Xuan Li, Jun-Dae Kim, Melissa Woolls, Suk-Won Jin, Alexandre Dubrac, Anne Eichmann, Michael Simons, Jeffrey R. Bender, Mehran M. Sadeghi
Anti-CD20 Ab therapy has proven successful for treating B cell malignancies and a number of autoimmune diseases. However, how anti-CD20 Abs operate in vivo to mediate B cell depletion is not fully understood. In particular, the anatomical location, the type of effector cells, and the mechanism underlying anti-CD20 therapy remain uncertain. Here, we found that the liver is a major site for B cell depletion and that recirculation accounts for the decrease in B cell numbers observed in secondary lymphoid organs. Using intravital imaging, we established that, upon anti-CD20 treatment, Kupffer cells (KCs) mediate the abrupt arrest and subsequent engulfment of B cells circulating in the liver sinusoids. KCs were also effective in depleting malignant B cells in a model of spontaneous lymphoma. Our results identify Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis by KCs as a primary mechanism of anti-CD20 therapy and provide an experimental framework for optimizing the efficacy of therapeutic Abs.
Fabricio Montalvao, Zacarias Garcia, Susanna Celli, Béatrice Breart, Jacques Deguine, Nico Van Rooijen, Philippe Bousso
Malignant melanoma is frequently driven by mutational activation of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (
Victoria Marsh Durban, Marian M. Deuker, Marcus W. Bosenberg, Wayne Phillips, Martin McMahon
A systems pharmacological approach that capitalizes on the characterization of intracellular signaling networks can transform our understanding of human diseases and lead to therapy development. Here, we applied this strategy to identify pharmacological targets for the treatment of Stargardt disease, a severe juvenile form of macular degeneration. Diverse GPCRs have previously been implicated in neuronal cell survival, and crosstalk between GPCR signaling pathways represents an unexplored avenue for pharmacological intervention. We focused on this receptor family for potential therapeutic interventions in macular disease. Complete transcriptomes of mouse and human samples were analyzed to assess the expression of GPCRs in the retina. Focusing on adrenergic (AR) and serotonin (5-HT) receptors, we found that adrenoceptor α 2C (
Yu Chen, Grazyna Palczewska, Debarshi Mustafi, Marcin Golczak, Zhiqian Dong, Osamu Sawada, Tadao Maeda, Akiko Maeda, Krzysztof Palczewski
Autoantibodies against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors inhibit normal immunity and are implicated in inflammatory autoimmune disease and diseases of immune deficiency. In an effort to evaluate serum from autoimmune and immunodeficient patients for Abs against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in a high-throughput and unbiased manner, we constructed a multiplex protein microarray for detection of serum factor–binding Abs and used the microarray to detect autoantibody targets in SLE. We designed a nitrocellulose-surface microarray containing human cytokines, chemokines, and other circulating proteins and demonstrated that the array permitted specific detection of serum factor–binding probes. We used the arrays to detect previously described autoantibodies against cytokines in samples from individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and chronic mycobacterial infection. Serum profiling from individuals with SLE revealed that among several targets, elevated IgG autoantibody reactivity to B cell–activating factor (BAFF) was associated with SLE compared with control samples. BAFF reactivity correlated with the severity of disease-associated features, including IFN-α–driven SLE pathology. Our results showed that serum factor protein microarrays facilitate detection of autoantibody reactivity to serum factors in human samples and that BAFF-reactive autoantibodies may be associated with an elevated inflammatory disease state within the spectrum of SLE.
Jordan V. Price, David J. Haddon, Dodge Kemmer, Guillaume Delepine, Gil Mandelbaum, Justin A. Jarrell, Rohit Gupta, Imelda Balboni, Eliza F. Chakravarty, Jeremy Sokolove, Anthony K. Shum, Mark S. Anderson, Mickie H. Cheng, William H. Robinson, Sarah K. Browne, Steven M. Holland, Emily C. Baechler, Paul J. Utz
Heart failure in children and adults is often the consequence of myocarditis associated with Coxsackievirus (CV) infection. Upon CV infection, enteroviral protease 2A cleaves a small number of host proteins including dystrophin, which links actin filaments to the plasma membrane of muscle fiber cells (sarcolemma). It is unknown whether protease 2A–mediated cleavage of dystrophin and subsequent disruption of the sarcolemma play a role in CV-mediated myocarditis. We generated knockin mice harboring a mutation at the protease 2A cleavage site of the dystrophin gene, which prevents dystrophin cleavage following CV infection. Compared with wild-type mice, we found that mice expressing cleavage-resistant dystrophin had a decrease in sarcolemmal disruption and cardiac virus titer following CV infection. In addition, cleavage-resistant dystrophin inhibited the cardiomyopathy induced by cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of the CV protease 2A transgene. These findings indicate that protease 2A–mediated cleavage of dystrophin is critical for viral propagation, enteroviral-mediated cytopathic effects, and the development of cardiomyopathy.
Byung-Kwan Lim, Angela K. Peter, Dingding Xiong, Anna Narezkina, Aaron Yung, Nancy D. Dalton, Kyung-Kuk Hwang, Toshitaka Yajima, Ju Chen, Kirk U. Knowlton
The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development. To investigate the role of RB1 in neural crest–derived melanocytes, we bred mice with a floxed
Ming Fu, Solange Landreville, Olga A. Agapova, Luke A. Wiley, Michael Shoykhet, J. William Harbour, Robert O. Heuckeroth
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a crucial role in the control of T cell fate determination; however, the precise regulatory mechanism of the mTOR pathway is not fully understood. We found that T cell–specific deletion of the gene encoding tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), an upstream negative regulator of mTOR, resulted in augmented Th1 and Th17 differentiation and led to severe intestinal inflammation in a colitis model. Conditional
Yoon Park, Hyung-Seung Jin, Justine Lopez, Chris Elly, Gisen Kim, Masako Murai, Mitchell Kronenberg, Yun-Cai Liu
Identification of single-gene causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) has furthered the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole human exome resequencing, we identified mutations in the aarF domain containing kinase 4 (
Shazia Ashraf, Heon Yung Gee, Stephanie Woerner, Letian X. Xie, Virginia Vega-Warner, Svjetlana Lovric, Humphrey Fang, Xuewen Song, Daniel C. Cattran, Carmen Avila-Casado, Andrew D. Paterson, Patrick Nitschké, Christine Bole-Feysot, Pierre Cochat, Julian Esteve-Rudd, Birgit Haberberger, Susan J. Allen, Weibin Zhou, Rannar Airik, Edgar A. Otto, Moumita Barua, Mohamed H. Al-Hamed, Jameela A. Kari, Jonathan Evans, Agnieszka Bierzynska, Moin A. Saleem, Detlef Böckenhauer, Robert Kleta, Sherif El Desoky, Duygu O. Hacihamdioglu, Faysal Gok, Joseph Washburn, Roger C. Wiggins, Murim Choi, Richard P. Lifton, Shawn Levy, Zhe Han, Leonardo Salviati, Holger Prokisch, David S. Williams, Martin Pollak, Catherine F. Clarke, York Pei, Corinne Antignac, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood.
Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Bin Zhang, Dwight Figueiredo, Jonathan Bean, Jiung Jung, Haitao Wu, Arnab Barik, Dong-Min Yin, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), catalyzing the conversion of Angiotensin II to Angiotensin 1-7. Apelin is a second catalytic substrate for ACE2 and functions as an inotropic and cardioprotective peptide. While an antagonistic relationship between the RAS and apelin has been proposed, such functional interplay remains elusive. Here we found that ACE2 was downregulated in apelin-deficient mice. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) rescued the impaired contractility and hypertrophy of apelin mutant mice, which was accompanied by restored ACE2 levels. Importantly, treatment with angiotensin 1-7 rescued hypertrophy and heart dysfunctions of apelin-knockout mice. Moreover, apelin, via activation of its receptor, APJ, increased ACE2 promoter activity in vitro and upregulated ACE2 expression in failing hearts in vivo. Apelin treatment also increased cardiac contractility and ACE2 levels in AT1R-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that ACE2 couples the RAS to the apelin system, adding a conceptual framework for the apelin-ACE2–angiotensin 1-7 axis as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.
Teruki Sato, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Ayumi Kadowaki, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Peter P. Liu, Akinori Kimura, Hiroshi Ito, Josef M. Penninger, Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves aberrant airway inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke (CS) that are associated with epithelial cell dysfunction, cilia shortening, and mucociliary clearance disruption. Exposure to CS reduced cilia length and induced autophagy in vivo and in differentiated mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs). Autophagy-impaired (
Hilaire C. Lam, Suzanne M. Cloonan, Abhiram R. Bhashyam, Jeffery A. Haspel, Anju Singh, J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti, Morgan Cervo, Hongwei Yao, Anna L. Chung, Kenji Mizumura, Chang Hyeok An, Bin Shan, Jonathan M. Franks, Kathleen J. Haley, Caroline A. Owen, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, George R. Washko, John Quackenbush, Edwin K. Silverman, Irfan Rahman, Hong Pyo Kim, Ashfaq Mahmood, Shyam S. Biswal, Stefan W. Ryter, Augustine M.K. Choi
Epigenetic dysregulation has emerged as a major contributor to tumorigenesis. Histone methylation is a well-established mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is dynamically modulated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases. The pathogenic role of histone methylation modifiers in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) demethylase KDM2A (also called FBXL11 and JHDM1A) is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC tumors and cell lines. KDM2A and its catalytic activity were required for in vitro proliferation and invasion of KDM2A-overexpressing NSCLC cells. KDM2A overexpression in NSCLC cells with low KDM2A levels increased cell proliferation and invasiveness. KDM2A knockdown abrogated tumor growth and invasive abilities of NSCLC cells in mouse xenograft models. We identified dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (
Klaus W. Wagner, Hunain Alam, Shilpa S. Dhar, Uma Giri, Na Li, Yongkun Wei, Dipak Giri, Tina Cascone, Jae-Hwan Kim, Yuanqing Ye, Asha S. Multani, Chia-Hsin Chan, Baruch Erez, Babita Saigal, Jimyung Chung, Hui-Kuan Lin, Xifeng Wu, Mien-Chie Hung, John V. Heymach, Min Gyu Lee
Cellular senescence contributes to aging and decline in tissue function. p53 isoform switching regulates replicative senescence in cultured fibroblasts and is associated with tumor progression. Here, we found that the endogenous p53 isoforms Δ133p53 and p53β are physiological regulators of proliferation and senescence in human T lymphocytes in vivo. Peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes collected from healthy donors displayed an age-dependent accumulation of senescent cells (CD28–CD57+) with decreased Δ133p53 and increased p53β expression. Human lung tumor-associated CD8+ T lymphocytes also harbored senescent cells. Cultured CD8+ blood T lymphocytes underwent replicative senescence that was associated with loss of CD28 and Δ133p53 protein. In poorly proliferative, Δ133p53-low CD8+CD28– cells, reconstituted expression of either Δ133p53 or CD28 upregulated endogenous expression of each other, which restored cell proliferation, extended replicative lifespan and rescued senescence phenotypes. Conversely, Δ133p53 knockdown or p53β overexpression in CD8+CD28+ cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced senescence. This study establishes a role for Δ133p53 and p53β in regulation of cellular proliferation and senescence in vivo. Furthermore, Δ133p53-induced restoration of cellular replicative potential may lead to a new therapeutic paradigm for treating immunosenescence disorders, including those associated with aging, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and HIV infection.
Abdul M. Mondal, Izumi Horikawa, Sharon R. Pine, Kaori Fujita, Katherine M. Morgan, Elsa Vera, Sharlyn J. Mazur, Ettore Appella, Borivoj Vojtesek, Maria A. Blasco, David P. Lane, Curtis C. Harris
Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease is essential to design efficient therapeutic approaches. In hepatocytes, the dimeric transcription factor c-JUN/AP-1 is a major mediator of cell survival during hepatitis, although functions for other JUN proteins in liver disease are less defined. Here, we found that JUNB was specifically expressed in human and murine immune cells during acute liver injury. We analyzed the molecular function of JUNB in experimental models of hepatitis, including administration of concanavalin A (ConA) or α-galactosyl-ceramide, which induce liver inflammation and injury. Mice specifically lacking JUNB in hepatocytes displayed a mild increase in ConA-induced liver damage. However, targeted deletion of
Martin K. Thomsen, Latifa Bakiri, Sebastian C. Hasenfuss, Rainer Hamacher, Lola Martinez, Erwin F. Wagner
Radioresistance of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with poor prognosis for patients with this form of cancer. Here, we found that NPC patients had increased serum levels of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and that higher LIF levels correlated with local tumor recurrence. Furthermore, in vitro studies with NPC cells and in vivo xenograft mouse studies demonstrated that LIF critically contributes to NPC tumor growth and radioresistance. Using these model systems, we found that LIF treatment activated the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway, enhanced tumor growth, inhibited DNA damage responses, and enhanced radioresistance. Treatment with either soluble LIF receptor (sLIFR), a LIF antagonist, or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reversed LIF-mediated effects, resulting in growth arrest and increased sensitivity to γ irradiation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of human NPC biopsies revealed that LIF and LIFR were overexpressed in tumor cells and that LIF expression correlated with the presence of the activated p-p70S6K. Finally, we found that the EBV-encoded protein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) enhances LIF production. Together, our findings indicate that LIF promotes NPC tumorigenesis and suggest that serum LIF levels may predict local recurrence and radiosensitivity in NPC patients.
Shu-Chen Liu, Ngan-Ming Tsang, Wen-Che Chiang, Kai-Ping Chang, Chuen Hsueh, Ying Liang, Jyh-Lyh Juang, Kai-Ping N. Chow, Yu-Sun Chang
Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (
Md. Shenuarin Bhuiyan, J. Scott Pattison, Hanna Osinska, Jeanne James, James Gulick, Patrick M. McLendon, Joseph A. Hill, Junichi Sadoshima, Jeffrey Robbins
An intact kidney filter is vital to retention of essential proteins in the blood and removal of waste from the body. Damage to the filtration barrier results in albumin loss in the urine, a hallmark of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. Here we found that the ion channel TRPC5 mediates filtration barrier injury. Using
Thomas Schaldecker, Sookyung Kim, Constantine Tarabanis, Dequan Tian, Samy Hakroush, Philip Castonguay, Wooin Ahn, Hanna Wallentin, Hans Heid, Corey R. Hopkins, Craig W. Lindsley, Antonio Riccio, Lisa Buvall, Astrid Weins, Anna Greka
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have shown promise for the treatment of several diseases; however, immune-mediated elimination of transduced cells has been suggested to limit and account for a loss of efficacy. To determine whether rAAV vector expression can persist long term, we administered rAAV vectors expressing normal, M-type α-1 antitrypsin (M-AAT) to AAT-deficient subjects at various doses by multiple i.m. injections. M-specific AAT expression was observed in all subjects in a dose-dependent manner and was sustained for more than 1 year in the absence of immune suppression. Muscle biopsies at 1 year had sustained AAT expression and a reduction of inflammatory cells compared with 3 month biopsies. Deep sequencing of the TCR Vβ region from muscle biopsies demonstrated a limited number of T cell clones that emerged at 3 months after vector administration and persisted for 1 year. In situ immunophenotyping revealed a substantial Treg population in muscle biopsy samples containing AAT-expressing myofibers. Approximately 10% of all T cells in muscle were natural Tregs, which were activated in response to AAV capsid. These results suggest that i.m. delivery of rAAV type 1–AAT (rAAV1-AAT) induces a T regulatory response that allows ongoing transgene expression and indicates that immunomodulatory treatments may not be necessary for rAAV-mediated gene therapy.
Christian Mueller, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Bruce C. Trapnell, Margaret Humphries, Brenna Carey, Robert A. Sandhaus, Noel G. McElvaney, Louis Messina, Qiushi Tang, Farshid N. Rouhani, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Ann Dongtao Fu, Anthony Yachnis, David R. Knop, Guo-jie Ye, Mark Brantly, Roberto Calcedo, Suryanarayan Somanathan, Lee P. Richman, Robert H. Vonderheide, Maigan A. Hulme, Todd M. Brusko, James M. Wilson, Terence R. Flotte
The induction of autophagy in the mammalian heart during the perinatal period is an essential adaptation required to survive early neonatal starvation; however, the mechanisms that mediate autophagy suppression once feeding is established are not known. Insulin signaling in the heart is transduced via insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs). We disrupted insulin and IGF-1R signaling by generating mice with combined cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of
Christian Riehle, Adam R. Wende, Sandra Sena, Karla Maria Pires, Renata Oliveira Pereira, Yi Zhu, Heiko Bugger, Deborah Frank, Jack Bevins, Dong Chen, Cynthia N. Perry, Xiaocheng C. Dong, Steven Valdez, Monika Rech, Xiaoming Sheng, Bart C. Weimer, Roberta A. Gottlieb, Morris F. White, E. Dale Abel
Negative affect is critical for conferring vulnerability to opiate addiction as reflected by the high comorbidity of opiate abuse with major depressive disorder (MDD). Rodent models implicate amygdala prodynorphin (
Sarah Ann R. Anderson, Michael Michaelides, Parisa Zarnegar, Yanhua Ren, Pernilla Fagergren, Panayotis K. Thanos, Gene-Jack Wang, Michael Bannon, John F. Neumaier, Eva Keller, Nora D. Volkow, Yasmin L. Hurd
The ability to map the functional connectivity of discrete cell types in the intact mammalian brain during behavior is crucial for advancing our understanding of brain function in normal and disease states. We combined
Michael Michaelides, Sarah Ann R. Anderson, Mala Ananth, Denis Smirnov, Panayotis K. Thanos, John F. Neumaier, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D. Volkow, Yasmin L. Hurd
Ionizing radiation (IR) and germline mutations in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (
Maya Kansara, Huei San Leong, Dan Mei Lin, Sophie Popkiss, Puiyi Pang, Dale W. Garsed, Carl R. Walkley, Carleen Cullinane, Jason Ellul, Nicole M. Haynes, Rod Hicks, Marieke L. Kuijjer, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Philip W. Hinds, Mark J. Smyth, David M. Thomas
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) regulates cellular responses to inflammation and aging, and alterations in NF-κB signaling underlie the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases. Effective clinical therapeutics targeting this pathway remain unavailable. In primary human keratinocytes, we found that hypochlorite (HOCl) reversibly inhibited the expression of
Thomas H. Leung, Lillian F. Zhang, Jing Wang, Shoucheng Ning, Susan J. Knox, Seung K. Kim
Huntington’s disease (HD) is the result of expression of a mutated Huntingtin protein (mtHtt), and is associated with a variety of cellular dysfunctions including excessive mitochondrial fission. Here, we tested whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission prevents mtHtt-induced pathology. We developed a selective inhibitor (P110-TAT) of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). We found that P110-TAT inhibited mtHtt-induced excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, improved mitochondrial function, and increased cell viability in HD cell culture models. P110-TAT treatment of fibroblasts from patients with HD and patients with HD with iPS cell–derived neurons reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and corrected mitochondrial dysfunction. P110-TAT treatment also reduced the extent of neurite shortening and cell death in iPS cell–derived neurons in patients with HD. Moreover, treatment of HD transgenic mice with P110-TAT reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, motor deficits, neuropathology, and mortality. We found that p53, a stress gene involved in HD pathogenesis, binds to DRP1 and mediates DRP1-induced mitochondrial and neuronal damage. Furthermore, P110-TAT treatment suppressed mtHtt-induced association of p53 with mitochondria in multiple HD models. These data indicate that inhibition of DRP1-dependent excessive mitochondrial fission with a P110-TAT–like inhibitor may prevent or slow the progression of HD.
Xing Guo, Marie-Helene Disatnik, Marie Monbureau, Mehrdad Shamloo, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Xin Qi
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