First published December 1, 2014 - More info
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is caused primarily by cigarette smoking, is a major health problem worldwide. The progressive decline in lung function that occurs in COPD is a result of persistent inflammation of the airways and destruction of the lung parenchyma. Despite the key role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of COPD, treatment with corticosteroids — normally highly effective antiinflammatory drugs — has little therapeutic benefit. This corticosteroid resistance is largely caused by inactivation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), which is critical for the transrepressive activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that mediates the antiinflammatory effect of corticosteroids. Here, we show that in alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD, S-nitrosylation of HDAC2 is increased and that this abolishes its GR-transrepression activity and promotes corticosteroid insensitivity. Cys-262 and Cys-274 of HDAC2 were found to be the targets of S-nitrosylation, and exogenous glutathione treatment of macrophages from individuals with COPD restored HDAC2 activity. Treatment with sulforaphane, a small-molecule activator of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2), was also able to denitrosylate HDAC2, restoring dexamethasone sensitivity in alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD. These effects of sulforaphane were glutathione dependent. We conclude that NRF2 is a novel drug target for reversing corticosteroid resistance in COPD and other corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory diseases.
Deepti Malhotra, Rajesh K. Thimmulappa, Nicolas Mercado, Kazuhiro Ito, Ponvijay Kombairaju, Sarvesh Kumar, Jinfang Ma, David Feller-Kopman, Robert Wise, Peter Barnes, Shyam Biswal
Original citation: J Clin Invest. 2011;121(11):4289–4302. doi:10.1172/JCI45144.
Citation for this retraction: J Clin Invest. 2014;124(12):5521. doi:10.1172/JCI79606.
The JCI, with the agreement of the corresponding authors and coauthors, is retracting the article “Denitrosylation of HDAC2 by targeting Nrf2 restores glucocorticosteroid sensitivity in macrophages from COPD patients.” The IP: streptavidin/IB: anti-HDAC2 immunoblot panel in Figure 3B was recently identified as an inverted image of the right four lanes of the anti-H4 acetyl CHIP gel presented in Figure 2A. Additionally, the IP: anti-streptavidin/IB: anti-DDK immunoblot presented in Supplemental Figure 3A was identified as an inverted image of the left four lanes of the anti-H4 acetyl CHIP gel presented in Figure 2A. Further, in Figure 9B, the incorrect anti-HDAC2 immunoblot was presented. The authors sincerely apologize for any misinterpretation of the data as a result of these errors.